Kubernetes: Service Networking
In Kubernetes, Service networking is handled by kube-proxy. Kube-proxy routes traffic to the appropriate pods based on the service’s selector. It operates in three different modes: userspace, iptables(by default), and IPVS. You can use the
service-cluster-ip-rangeparameter in the kube-apiserver manifest to assign a specific IP address range to services. The NAT table includes rules that map the service’s virtual IP address to the IP addresses of the pods that support the service. Each node in the cluster has its own NAT table that is configured by kube-proxy.
In Kubernetes, pod networking is handled by kubelet using CNI, while service networking is managed by kube-proxy. It’s important to note that services are not created or assigned to individual nodes, but are a cluster-wide concept. Kube-proxy routes traffic to the correct pods based on the service’s selector.
The following section will explore how kube-proxy handles service networking in Kubernetes.
The Role of Kube-Proxy in Service Networking
In Kubernetes, services provide a stable network endpoint to connect to a set of pods. Kube-proxy handles the routing and load-balancing of client requests to the pods behind the service. It runs on each node in the cluster, watches the Kubernetes API server for changes in the service and endpoints objects, and configures the networking rules on each node based on the selected mode of operation (userspace, iptables, or IPVS).
Kube-proxy has three distinct modes of operation:
- userspace: kube-proxy creates a userspace program that listens on a port and handles traffic.
- iptables: kube-proxy creates iptables rules to forward traffic to the appropriate endpoints.
- IPVS: kube-proxy uses the IP Virtual Server (IPVS) kernel module to handle traffic.
If the mode is not explicitly set, the default mode of operation is iptables. To change the mode, use the kube-proxy command with the
--proxy-modeoption followed by the desired mode:
$ kube-proxy --proxy-mode=[userspace|iptables|ipvs]
Predefine Service IP Range
To assign a specific IP address range to services in the Kubernetes cluster, we can use the
service-cluster-ip-range parameter in the kube-apiserver manifest. This configuration file is usually located at
--service-cluster-ip-range=<IP address>/<subnet mask>
By setting the service-cluster-ip-range, Kubernetes will allocate service IP addresses from within that range for any newly created services.
For example, if you want to set the service IP address range to 172.16.0.0/16, you can add the following line to the kube-apiserver manifest:
⚠️ It is important to note that Pods and Services should not share the same IP address.
Kube-proxy in iptables mode and the NAT table
In iptables mode, kube-proxy uses the NAT(Network Address Translation) table to load-balance and route incoming traffic by creating rules in the NAT table on each node. The DNAT(Destination Network Address Translation) rule translates the request’s destination IP address to a backend pod’s IP address, and the SNAT(Source Network Address Translation) rule translates the response’s source IP address back to the service IP address, ensuring that the response is sent back to the original client.
You can view the contents of the NAT table in the iptables firewall configuration by running the command:
$ iptables -L -t nat
-t nat: specify the NAT table in iptables. It tells iptables to list the rules defined in the NAT table.
These are my personal notes for CKA exam preparation on Kubernetes. Please feel free to correct me if you notice any errors. 😊
A Kubernetes cluster consists of the components that are a part of the control plane and a set of machines called…